For increased reliability, you can configure access points and bridges to treat workgroup bridges not as client devices but as infrastructure devices, like access points or bridges. Treating a workgroup bridge as an infrastructure device means that the access point reliably delivers multicast packets, including Address Resolution Protocol ARP packets, to the workgroup bridge. You use the infrastructure-client configuration interface command to configure access points and bridges to treat workgroup bridges as infrastructure devices. Configuring access points and bridges to treat a workgroup bridge as a client device allows more workgroup bridges to associate to the same access point, or to associate using an SSID that is not an infrastructure SSID.
The performance cost of reliable multicast delivery—duplication of each multicast packet sent to each workgroup bridge—limits the number of infrastructure devices, including workgroup bridges, that can associate to an access point or bridge. To increase beyond 20 the number of workgroup bridges that can associate to the access point, the access point must reduce the delivery reliability of multicast packets to workgroup bridges.
With reduced reliability, the access point cannot confirm whether multicast packets reach the intended workgroup bridge, so wired clients of workgroup bridges at the edge of the access point coverage area may not receive all multicast frames. When you treat workgroup bridges as client devices, you increase performance but reduce reliability. You use the no infrastructure client configuration interface command to configure access points and bridges to treat workgroup bridges as simple client devices.
This is the default setting. You should use a workgroup bridge as an infrastructure device if the devices connected to the workgroup bridge require network reliability equivalent to that of an access point or a bridge. You should use a workgroup bridge as a client device if these conditions are true:.
Please notice that the no infrastructure client command is entered on the access point to which the workgroup bridge associates. This command determines whether the access point should add unicast copies of each multicast frames, sent in a reliable unicast with acknowledgment fashion to each workgroup bridge in the cell. When infrastructure client is configured on the access point, each workgroup bridge potentially receives both the multicast initial frame and the unicast copy.
Processing both frames carrying the same upper layer content creates processing inefficiency on the workgroup bridge.
You can configure the workgroup bridge to consider the multicast frame and discard the unicast copy default , or consider the unicast frame and discard the multicast original frame. The client option considers the multicast frame and discards the unicast copy. The infrastructure option echoes the Infrastructure Client configuration on the main access point, and sets the workgroup bridge to consider the unicast copies of multicast frames, and not process the multicast frames.
By default, workgroup bridges are expected to be static. Therefore, once they are associated to an access point SSID, they do not scan for other access points. If your workgroup bridge is mobile, you can configure it to scan for a better radio connection to a parent access point or bridge. Use this command to configure the workgroup bridge as a mobile station:. When you enable this setting, the workgroup bridge scans for a new parent association when it encounters a poor Received Signal Strength Indicator RSSI , excessive radio interference, or a high frame-loss percentage.
Using these criteria, a workgroup bridge configured as a mobile station searches for a new parent association and roams to a new parent before it loses its current association. When the mobile station setting is disabled the default setting the workgroup bridge does not search for a new association until it loses its current association.
This is a configurable parameter to control when WGB triggers a new roaming event. If this cli is configured and if the current data rate is lower than the configured value, the new roaming process will be triggered. This will reduce unnecessary roaming and allows to have an expected rate value. You can also configure the periodicity of scans. When the connection conditions deteriorate, the workgroup bridge scans for a better access point to connect to. If the scan does not allow the workgroup bridge to find a better connection point, use the mobile station period number-of-seconds command to determine the interval to the next scanning cycle.
In mobile environments such as railroads, a workgroup bridge instead of scanning all the channels will be restricted to scan only a set of limited channels in order to reduce the hand-off delay when the workgroup bridge roams from one access point to another. By limiting the number of channels the workgroup bridge scans to only those required, the mobile workgroup bridge achieves and maintains a continuous wireless LAN connection with fast and smooth roaming. There is no limitation on the maximum number of channels that can be configured. The maximum number of channels that can be configured is restricted only by the number of channels a radio can support.
When executed, the workgroup bridge only scans this limited channel set. This limited channel feature also affects the known channel list that the workgroup bridge receives from the access point to which it is currently associated. Channels are added to the known channel list only if they are also a part of the limited channel set. The following example shows how the command is used. In the example, channels 1, 6, and 11 are specified to scan:. Use the no mobile station scan command to restore scanning to all the channels.
However, when a workgroup bridge is configured for limited channel scanning, it does not need to process the CCX reports to update its known channel list. Use the mobile station ignore neighbor-list command to disable processing of CCX neighbor list reports. This command is effective only if the workgroup bridge is configured for limited scanning channel scanning.
The following example shows how this command is used. Enter this command on the workgroup bridge:. When this feature is enabled, the WGB removes the In the upstream direction, WGB removes the In the downstream direction while forwarding the packet to the switch connecting the wired-client, the WLC sends the packet to WGB without the Beginning in privileged EXEC mode, follow these steps to configure an access point as a workgroup bridge:.
Optional When configured as a workgroup bridge, the access point sends specific messages to the primary access point to inform it about the MAC addresses of wired clients relayed through the workgroup bridge radio. When the primary access point is not a Cisco access point, these messages are not understood.
To allow the workgroup bridge to successfully associate and communicate with a non-Cisco access point, you can use the universal optional argument. A restriction of this mode is that only one wired client is supported. When configuring this mode you need to configure the MAC address of the wired client, to which the traffic should be relayed through the workgroup bridge. This process supports non-Cisco access points that need a unique mapping between a wireless client and a MAC address.
Optional When the primary access point is configured with the infrastructure client command, multicast frames are also sent to workgroup bridges via unicast. When using the infrastructure client command on the primary access point, use the station role workgroup-bridge multicast mode infrastructure to instruct the workgroup bridge to ignore the multicast frames and only process the relayed unicast copies of the multicast frames. Use the station role workgroup-bridge multicast mode client to instruct the workgroup bridge to only consider the standard frames, and ignore any relayed frame that would display four MAC addresses in the header.
Designates the SSID that the workgroup bridge should use to associate to a parent access point or a bridge. Note The workgroup bridge must use an infrastructure SSID to associate to a root access point or bridge. Optional If the parent access point is configured to require LEAP authentication, configure the username and password that the workgroup bridge uses when it performs LEAP authentication.
This username and password must match the username and password that you set up for the workgroup bridge on the authentication server. Exit SSID configuration mode and return to radio interface configuration mode. Optional Enter the MAC address for the access point to which the workgroup bridge should associate.
Optional Configure the workgroup bridge as a mobile station. When this setting is disabled the default setting the workgroup bridge does not search for a new association until it loses its current association. Optional When the signal to the access point to which the workgroup bridge is associated, deteriorates, the workgroup bridge scans for an alternate access point.
If this scan is unsuccessful i. Optional When a workgroup bridge scans for an alternate access point, this command determines the minimum data rate that should be achievable to the new access point in order for the workgroup bridge to consider the alternate access point as a potential connection point. Optional Restricts the list of channels that the workgroup bridge should scan in search of an alternate access point. Optional When the workgroup bridge is configured to restrict the list of scanned channels, this command instructs the workgroup bridge to ignore the CCX neighbor list messages that indicate potential neighboring access points and their channel.
Exit radio configuration mode and return to global configuration mode. This example shows how to configure an access point as a workgroup bridge. In this example, the workgroup bridge uses the configured username and password to perform LEAP authentication, and the devices attached to its Ethernet port are assigned to VLAN This example shows how to set up a workgroup bridge with the parent access points, designated 1 and You can configure an access point to operate as a workgroup bridge so that it can provide wireless connectivity to a lightweight access point on behalf of clients that are connected by Ethernet to the workgroup bridge access point.
A workgroup bridge connects to a wired network over a single wireless segment by learning the MAC address of its wired clients on the Ethernet interface and reporting them to the lightweight access point using Internet Access Point Protocol IAPP messaging. The workgroup bridge provides wireless access connectivity to wired clients by establishing a single connection to the lightweight access point.
The lightweight access point treats the workgroup bridge as a wireless client. Figure Workgroup Bridge in a Lightweight Environment. Note If the lightweight access point fails, the workgroup bridge attempts to associate to another access point. Follow these guidelines for using workgroup bridges on your lightweight network:. Note If your access point has two radios, you can configure only one for workgroup bridge mode. This radio is used to connect to the lightweight access point. We recommend that you disable the second radio. Perform one of the following to enable the workgroup bridge mode on the workgroup bridge:.
Note If a workgroup bridge associates to a web-authentication WLAN, the workgroup bridge is added to the exclusion list, and all of the workgroup bridge wired clients are deleted.
To verify that the workgroup bridge is associated to an access point, enter this command on the workgroup bridge:. If a wired client does not send traffic for an extended period of time, the workgroup bridge removes the client from its bridge table, even if traffic is continuously being sent to the wired client.
As a result, the traffic flow to the wired client fails. To avoid the traffic loss, prevent the wired client from being removed from the bridge table by configuring the aging-out timer on the workgroup bridge to a large value using the following IOS commands on the workgroup bridge:. VideoStream improves the reliability of an IP multicast stream by converting the multicast frame, over the air, to a unicast frame. Cisco IOS Releases For access points running release Skip to content Skip to footer.
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Find Matches in This Book. Updated: August 15, Configuring Repeater and Standby Access Points and Workgroup Bridge Mode This chapter describes how to configure your access point as a repeater, as a hot standby unit, or as a workgroup bridge. The following message appears when the infrastructure SSID is configured on non-native VLAN: SSID [xxx] must be configured as native-vlan before enabling infrastructure-ssid Note Access points create a virtual interface for each radio interface, and so repeater access points associate to the root access point twice: once for the actual interface and once for the virtual interface.
Repeaters extend the coverage area of your wireless LAN, but they drastically reduce throughput. Use repeaters when most if not all client devices that associate with the repeaters are Cisco Aironet clients. When non-Cisco clients are expected, verify that these clients support the Aironet IE extension, as this option is required on the SSID to allow for the communication between an AP and a repeater.
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WorkGroup Bridge – WGB Configurations
Did you mean:. All community This category This board. Universal Workgroup Bridge feature on Autonomous access points. Labels: Other Wireless - Mobility Subjects. Core Issue series autonomous access points can support Universal Workgroup Bridge mode. Latest Contents. WLC - iPad to Screenbeam screen mirroring not working. Created by jpastore agoc. Hello, all. I'm working through an issue here over the past several weeks. We recently purchased a Screenbeam product for unified screen mirroring in our boardrooms. Windows and Android devices work fine, but Apple does not.
By using this approach, cellular services can be used to fill gaps in connections and to provide backup wireless connectivity. This added backup interface requires Mobile IP to enable client roaming between the two separate networks. In IP networks, routing is based on stationary IP addresses, similarly to how a postal letter is delivered to a fixed address on an envelope. A device on a network is reachable through IP routing by the IP address to which it is assigned on the network.
However, when networks are in motion, problems occur when a device roams away from its home network and is no longer reachable using its existing IP route. This causes the active sessions of the device to be terminated. Mobile IP offers a solution to these roaming problems by enabling users to keep the same IP address while traveling to a different network which may even be operated by a different wireless operator , thus ensuring that a roaming client can continue communication without sessions or connection drops.
Because the mobility functions of Mobile IP are performed at the network layer rather than the physical or link layer, mobile devices such as the Cisco can span different types of wireless and wired networks while maintaining connections and ongoing applications. Any application that requires that the Session layer be maintained is a candidate for use on a Mobile IP-enabled network connection. Loss of eight consecutive beacons 2. Data rate shift 3. Maximum data retry count is exceeded the default value is 64 on the WMIC 4. A measured period of time of a drop in the signal strength threshold Only 3 and 4 above are configurable via the packet retries command and mobile station period X threshold Y in dbm ; the remainder are hard-coded.
If a client starts scanning because of a loss of eight consecutive beacons, the following message is displayed on the console: Too many missed beacons. The WMIC in this case is acting as a universal bridge client much like any other wireless client in its behavior. An additional triggering mechanism, mobile station, is not periodic but does have two variables; period and threshold.
If a mobile station is configured, the mobile station algorithm evaluates two variables data rate shift and signal strength and responds as follows: If the driver does a long-term downshift in the transmit rate for packets to the parent, the WMIC initiates a scan for a new parent no more than once every configured period. If the signal strength threshold drops below a configurable level, the WMIC scans for a new parent no more than once every configured period. The data-rate shift can be displayed with the following command. This determines the time period to scan depending on how much the data rate was decreased.
The period should be set depending on the application; default is 20 seconds. This delay period prevents the WMIC from constantly scanning for a better parent if, for example, the threshold is below the configured value. The default is dbm. Use a straight through DB9-to-DB9 cable. Create a loopback interface and assign an IP address.
VLAN 3 is used for the 2. VLAN 2 is used for the 4. See Table This is the only operating mode that supports the distance command. If the unit is able to associate to another Cisco root device within 60 seconds, the unit assumes a non-root bridge role. The device can be configured into root bridge or non-root bridge modes to avoid the second automatic detection phase. Root specifies that the device is operating as a root bridge and connects directly to the main Ethernet LAN network.
In this mode, the unit accepts associations from other Cisco bridges and wireless client devices. Non-root specifies that the device is connecting to a remote LAN network, and that it must associate with a Cisco root device by using the wireless interface. Follow these steps to configure the WMIC to determine is role automatically: Step 1 Step 2 Step 3 Under the dot11 interface, enter the following command. Set the WMIC role. This mode does not support wireless client associations. As a workgroup bridge, the device associates to an Aironet access point or bridge as a client and provides a wireless LAN connection for devices connected to its Ethernet port.
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Issue the mobile station command. When this feature is enabled, the bridge scans for a new parent association whenever it encounters a poor received signal strength indicator RSSI , excessive radio interference, or a high frame loss percentage. Using When the mobile station setting is disabled the default setting the WMIC does not search for a new association until it loses its current association.
For example, this may be a non-cisco mesh network. Interoperability The UWGB can forward routing traffic using a non-cisco root device as a universal client. The UWGB appears as a normal wireless client to the root device. In this role, it accepts associations from wireless clients. This can be a useful configuration if you are planning to deploy a mobile hotspot.
Issue the following command in the dot11 interface configuration to configure the WMIC as an access point: station-role root access-point This specifies that the WMIC functions as a root access point. Security The security section of this chapter does not fully discuss in detail the underlying concepts behind the security features of the MAR; for more in depth information on these security mechanisms, see Chapter 4, Cisco Unified Wireless Network Architecture Base Security Features.
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Before wireless devices can communicate, they must authenticate to each other using open, For maximum security, wireless devices should also authenticate to your network using EAP authentication, which is an authentication type that relies on an authentication server on your network. Also by default, the authentication types assigned to autoinstall are open.
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This enables clients with no security settings whatsoever to connect to the MAR. To secure the MAR, this configuration default must be changed. Each command is followed by a description of the command components and any optional configuration components. The SSID can consist of up to 32 alphanumeric characters.
SSIDs are case sensitive. Open authentication allows any client device to authenticate and then attempt to communicate with the WMIC. The access point forces all client devices to perform MAC address authentication before they are allowed to join the network. For list-name, specify the authentication method list. Additional information on method lists may be found at the following URL: Use the alternate keyword to allow client devices to join the network using either MAC or EAP authentication; clients that successfully complete either authentication are allowed to join the network.
Use the optional keyword to allow client devices using either open or EAP authentication to associate and become authenticated. This setting is used mainly by service providers that require special client accessibility. A root device configured for EAP authentication forces all client devices that associate to perform EAP authentication. Client devices that do not use EAP cannot communicate with the root device.
Because of shared key's security flaws, Cisco recommends that you avoid using it.
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You can assign shared key authentication to only one SSID. All client devices that associate to the access point are required to perform MAC address authentication. Configuring dot1x Credentials The commands in this section cover the steps to configure dot1x credentials for use with EAP. Each command is followed by a description of the commands components and any optional configuration components.
Root devices that do not use EAP cannot communicate with the device. This is the profile created in step 2 above. On your root device, enter the following command in global configuration mode: bridge config wlccp ap username username password password You must configure the same username and password pair when you set up the root device as a client on your authentication server.
If you enter the key as hexadecimal characters, you must enter 64 hexadecimal characters. However, note that the WPA-PSK authentication mechanism was intended to be used for consumer networks, not small-to-medium businesses or enterprise networks, and is not suggested to be used in an enterprise-class WGB or mesh environment. A key generated from a passphrase of less than approximately 20 characters is likely to be vulnerable to a dictionary attack. In the last step in the WPA process, the root device distributes a group key to the authenticated non-root bridge.
You can use the following optional settings to configure the root device to change and distribute the group key based on association and disassociation of non-root bridges: Membership termination The root device generates and distributes a new group key when any authenticated non-root bridge disassociates from the root device. This feature keeps the group key private for associated bridges. Capability change The root device generates and distributes a dynamic group key when the last non-key management non-root bridge disassociates, and it distributes the statically configured key when the first non-key management non-root bridge authenticates.
In WPA migration mode, this feature significantly improves the security of key-management capable clients. If you use hexadecimal, you must enter 64 hexadecimal characters to complete the bit key. If you use ASCII, you must enter a minimum of 8 letters, numbers, or symbols, and the bridge expands the key for you. It is possible to design the routers for multiple Ethernet and serial interfaces as well as up to three WMIC cards. It can have up to the following card configurations: Two 2. For the more common applications, the ruggedized enclosure and bundles are available.
Each pair corresponds to a single WMIC card. The pair on the bottom belongs to the W1 card. The next pair above this belongs to W2.