No feeding buzzes were recorded in forest whereas at other habitats it was similar between sea- without cenotes Fig. TABLE 1. Number of files with activity recorded per habitat and season for each insectivorous bat species found in the north of the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico. Numbers of feeding buzzes are presented in parentheses. Taxonomy of bat species follows Simmons Surveys carried out in 40 European and North American countries have also shown that water bodies e. The preference for cenotes by insectivorous cenpast past cenfor for Habitat bats may be explained by two main factors.
Median values of bat activity recorded at habitats in the In the karstic landscape of the Yucatan which Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico. Pteronotus personatus and Molossid 1 possibly landscape. Eumops underwoodi were recorded exclusively at Cenotes were the most important foraging habi- cenotes both in pastureland and forest. Peropteryx tat for insectivorous species considering the high macrotis, M.
We detected the foraging activ- buzzes at cenotes than in habitats without cenotes ity of 16 species of four families at cenotes. Para- Table 1. This contradiction may re- late to the variation in specific groups of insects con- 1. For example, the higher Season Median insect biomass per night g Rainy number of feeding buzzes in the dry season could be Dry due to bats particularly emballonurids feeding on 0. In contrast, the lack of feeding buzzes of insectivorous bats from other families, suggests that during the dry season 0.
Median values of insect biomass recorded at habitats of the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico. These findings may partly be cenpast: cenotes in pastureland; past: pastureland; cenfor: explained by the methods used to sample insects. Both species are poorly documented in intensity to the same extent as at our forested sites the Yucatan Peninsula, but previous records have C. MacSwiney, personal observation. Aut- vore bat species each night than habitats without ecological studies using radio transmitters attached cenotes, with up to12 detected at one cenote in a sin- to these two species might clarify whether cenotes gle night.
The co-occurrence of many different in- represent a critical habitat for their conservation. Water contamination to avoid competition and optimize habitat-use. In due to disposal of untreated domestic and animal Colorado, temporal partitioning was observed in waste and nitrogen-rich fertilizer used in agriculture five species of Myotis commuting to small water are the major threats to cenotes Pacheco et al.
Contamination of water bodies in other coun- Although we do not have the data to assess tries has resulted in a reduction of activity and feed- temporal patterns of bat activity, our observations ing buzzes of some insectivorous species, an in- suggest that species such as L. These differences in the loids produced by blooms of blue-green algae timing of habitat use by the insectivorous species at Racey, b.
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Our results indicate that cenotes cenotes may facilitate resource-partitioning. Conservation of the water and the cenotes was surprising. Sound transmission is af- surrounding vegetation of cenotes, particularly in fected by vegetation density, explaining the lower the agricultural landscape, is a high priority for fu- detection of bat species echolocating at frequencies ture biodiversity action plans. Fieldwork was supported by the University of possible that the calls of vespertilionids, which are Aberdeen. We thank P. Vilchis, J. Pech, E. Christie, C. A collecting permit was sites, resulting in low detection.
Temporal resource in open, uncluttered space, above the forest canopy partitioning by bats at water holes. Journal of Zoology and rarely in small forest gaps Crome and Richards, London , — Use of spatial fea- ; Kalko, Journal of Mammalogy, — TUN, and M. A new approach Chrotopterus auritus and the gleaning insectivore on the bioclimatology and potential vegetation of the Yuca- Micronycteris schmidtorum MacSwiney et al.
Phytocoenologia, 1— Bats are not birds — a cautionary note Our results suggest that two additional on using echolocation calls to identify bats: a comment. Racey RYAN. Canadian Journal of Zoology, — The evolution of echoloca- E. Trends in Ecology and Evolution, — JUNG, K. Echo- Acta Chiropterologica, 8: — Bat serenades complex design and call frequency alternation. Journal of Zoology courtship songs of the sac-winged bat Saccopteryx bilinea- London , — Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, — Echolocation by insect-eating bats.
Science, — Echolocation, olfaction ing bats. Acta Chiropterologica, 6: — Conservation priorities for mammals in curbits. Functional Ecology, — How echolo- Ecological Applications, — SU- logy and conservation T. KUNZ, and P. Limnological and morphometrical eds. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D. Community structure and activity of practice. Mammalian tems S. Ecology, — Revista Mexicana de Masto- tat features in mixed farmland in Scotland. Choosing and using statistics. Blackwell Publishing, Oxford, assemblages in the Yucatan, Mexico.
Biological Conserva- UK, pp. General bat activity measured with an ultrasound detector in What you see is not what you get: the role of ultrasonic a fragmented tropical landscape in Los Tuxtlas, Mexico. A technique for monitoring bat activity — Diversity and conservation of bats in ern Ontario. Mexico: research priorities, strategies, and actions. Detecting, recording, and analyzing vocal- Society Bulletin, 87— A method for determining relative activity methods for the study of bats T.
Catalonia and Ireland
KUNZ, ed. Smithsonian of free flying bats using a new activity index for acoustic Institution Press, Washington, D. Acta Chiropterologica, 3: 93— Etnoflora Yucatanense. Ecological mor- M. Research challenges for the Lowland adaptations, flight performance, foraging strategy and echo- Maya Area: an introduction.
Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of Area. Three millennia at the human-wildland interface London, B: — The Haworth Press, Binghamton, bution of acoustic methods to the study of insectivorous bat New York, pp. Chiropterologica, 2: — A new examination Agave fourcroydes lem. Forest Ecology and Management, 67— The echolocation of flying insects by bats. Use of vocal signa- iour, 8: — Performance Confronting the dogma: a reply.
Journal of Mammalogy, of airborne animal sonar systems: I. ESCO- J. FISH, eds.
Auktion - YEARS OF IRISH HISTORY am - orahehunumen.tk
Plenum Press, New York, pp. Fishing and echolocation behaviour of the ogy, — Journal of the Torrey Bo- ciety Bulletin, — TOSI, L. Order Chiroptera. Identifying bats from mal species of the World: a taxonomic and geographic ref- time-expanded recordings of search calls: comparing meth- erence, 3rd edition D. Journal of Wildlife Management, — The their conservation. RACEY, eds. Smithsonian fruit-eating bats, Carollia perspicillata and C. The importance of the riparian environment — Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, racruz.
Identification of and insects over two Scottish rivers with contrasting nitrate British bat species by multivariate analysis of echolocation status. In Britain, the National Fraternity is made up of nine regional fraternities. In Scotland there are fraternities in Edinburgh, Glasgow, and Inverness. The Third Order was active in Dublin during the medieval period. There were tertiaries assisting the Conventual Franciscans at Drogheda in Although the friary closed in , the Secular Franciscans continue to meet in Drogheda. A fraternity was established by the Capuchins in Cork in  and another in Kilkenny.
As of , Secular Franciscans in Ireland numbered over Early Franciscan missionaries established fraternities in the Southern and Southwestern states, where there was extensive French and Spanish Catholic influence. A fraternity was established at Santa Fe before Single individuals among the Indians were sometimes classified as tertiaries.
It is likely that a confraternity was founded at St. Augustine, Florida , before the close of the 16th century, as this was the first Spanish settlement in what is now the United States. A confraternity was established at San Antonio, Texas , before the middle of the 18th century. The establishment of provinces of the order of Friars Minor brought about the establishment of many confraternities. In a number of friar provincials set up a national organization.
With the approval of a new Rule in , the fraternities were reorganized as an independent arm of the Franciscan Movement. The National Fraternity of the United States was formed and divided into thirty regions. As of , there are over 12, Secular Franciscans in the United States. New Zealand has its own National Fraternity. The earliest Rule was found in the Guarnacci Library in Volterra. An expanded version, the Later Exhortation, was completed by about Both Exhortations were composed by Francis.
In the Earlier Exhortation, Francis describes the elements of the conversion process:. Francis speaks in ecstatic terms of those who embrace this way of life: "Oh, how happy and blessed are these men and women when they do these things and persevere in doing them since the Spirit of the Lord will rest upon them and He will make His home and dwelling among them.
They are children of the heavenly Father whose works they do, and they are spouses, brothers and mothers of Our Lord Jesus Christ. The interpretation of the Rule and of the Constitutions is done by the Holy See. The practical interpretation of the Constitutions, with the purpose of harmonizing its application in different areas and at the various levels of the Order, belongs to the General Chapter of the OFS.
The clarification of specific points which require a timely decision belongs to the Presidency of the International Council of the OFS. The regional and the local fraternities may have their own statutes approved by the council of the higher level. The fraternities at different levels are animated and guided by the minister or president, with the council, in accordance with the Rule, the Constitutions, and their own Statutes. These offices are conferred through elections. NAFRA reports that in the United States there are currently 30 regions, fraternities, and 14, professed members.
The International Fraternity is constituted by the organic union of all the Catholic Secular Franciscan fraternities in the world. It is identical to the OFS with its own juridical personality within the Church, organized and in conformity with the Constitutions and its own Statutes.
Francis's spirituality was simply to "observe the Gospel. There is, then, a Franciscan doctrine in accordance with which God is holy, is great, and above all, is good, indeed the supreme Good. For in this doctrine, God is love. He lives by love, creates for love, becomes flesh and redeems, that is, he saves and makes holy, for love. There is also a Franciscan way of contemplating Jesus: the meeting of uncreated Love with created love. Similarly, there is a method of loving Him and of imitating Him: in reality it sees the Man-God, and prefers to consider Him in His holy Humanity, because this reveals Him more clearly and, as it were, allows Him to be touched.
From this arises a burning devotion to the Incarnation and the Passion of Jesus, because these mysteries allow us to see Him, not so much in His glory, in His omnipotent grandeur, or in His eternal triumph, as rather in His human love — so tender in the manger, so sorrowful on the cross.
Saint Bonaventure , the seraphic doctor, is regarded as deeply penetrated and imbued with the mind of Saint Francis of Assisi. Bonaventure sought to know God in Him in order to love and serve Him. Besides his popular writing, Bonaventure has written works of pure spirituality in strict dependence and vital application on Christ, because he felt that all knowledge that is not founded on Christ is vain.
The work which sums up all his doctrine is the "Collationes in Hexaemeron", a synthesis of all human knowledge, including spirituality. The second of the Franciscan masters produced no notable treatise on spirituality, but John Duns Scotus has systematized the primacy on which Franciscan spirituality is founded.
He has given many suggestions and produced many texts such that his disciples and his commentators can be guided by him, and thus came to reveal Franciscan thought and its spirituality, though he differs notably from Bonaventure. In early education, in training, and in his days at Oxford as student and later as master, John Duns Scotus deepened the understanding of the real and the concrete. Thus John Duns Scotus joined his predecessor Bonaventure on a similar interpretation of the function and mission of Jesus Christ given by Francis, that Christ is the highest grace God offers His creatures, and their response controls their attitude to God.
One of the most important consequences of the Secular Franciscan charism is that the spiritual formation of the OFS must cater for those whose vocation is, motivated by the Gospel, to live in secular circumstances. Intimate union with Christ lies at the heart of the OFS vocation. Secular Franciscans should seek to encounter the living and active person of Christ in their brothers and sisters, in Sacred Scripture, in the Church and in liturgical activity.
They do this by studying, loving and living in an integrated human and evangelical life. Twenty-first century Secular Franciscans live out the secular aspect of their charism by paying attention to three things. First, they draw on the rich experience of Franciscan figures of the past, who were both contemplative and dedicated to activities as parents, single people, kings, craftsmen, recluses, and people involved in welfare activities.
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Second, at the beginning of the third millennium, they face a test of their creativity when confronted by the new evangelisation. Third, they cultivate a deep knowledge of Francis the prophet, an example from the past, leading them into the future. The Secular Franciscan charism is not given to an individual person but to a group of brothers and sisters. Thus from the outset, it is a group that is shaped by the Holy Church, and it is only in this context that the charism can thrive.
The fraternity of the Order finds its origin in the inspiration of Francis to whom the Most High revealed the essential Gospel quality of life in fraternal communion. The vocation of the Order is, therefore, a vocation to live the Gospel in fraternal communion. For one's initial formation, participation in the meetings of the local fraternity is an indispensable presupposition for initiation into community of prayer and into fraternal life.
The Secular Franciscans commit themselves to live the Gospel according to Franciscan spirituality in their secular condition. The Secular Franciscan must personally and assiduously study the Gospel and Sacred Scripture to foster love for the word of the Gospel and help the brothers and sisters to know and understand it as it is proclaimed by the Church with the assistance of the Spirit. Secular Franciscans, called in earlier times "the brothers and sisters of penance", propose to live in the spirit of continual conversion.
Some means to cultivate this characteristic of the Franciscan vocation, individually and in fraternity, are: listening to and celebrating the Word of God; review of life; spiritual retreats; the help of a spiritual adviser; and penitential celebrations.
Secular Franciscans should pledge themselves to live the spirit of the Beatitudes and, in a special way, the spirit of poverty. Evangelical poverty demonstrates confidence in the Father, affects interior freedom, and disposes them to promote a more just distribution of wealth. They must provide for their own families and serve society by means of their work and material goods. They have a particular manner of living evangelical poverty.
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To understand and achieve it requires a strong personal commitment and the stimulation of the fraternity in prayer and dialogue, communal review of life, and attentiveness to the instructions of the Church and the demands of society. They pledge themselves to reduce their own personal needs so as to be better able to share spiritual and material goods with their brothers and sisters, especially those most in need. They should give thanks to God for the goods they have received, using them as good stewards and not as owners. They should take a firm position against consumerism and against ideologies and practices which prefer riches over human and religious values and which permit the exploitation of the human person.
They should love and practice purity of heart, the source of true fraternity. Following the example of Saint Francis of Assisi, Patron of Ecology, they collaborate with efforts to fight pollution and to conserve all that is valuable in nature. This conservation keeps in mind that the exploitation of the environment often puts disproportionate hardships on the poor, especially if they live in the affected areas. Secular Franciscans are called to make their own contribution, inspired by the person and message of Francis, towards a civilization in which the dignity of the human person, shared responsibility, and love may be living realities.
They should firmly commit themselves to oppose every form of exploitation, discrimination, and exclusion and against every attitude of indifference in relation to others. They promote the building of fraternity among peoples: they should be committed to create worthy conditions of life for all and to work for the freedom of all people. Secular Franciscans attempt to be in the forefront in the field of public life.
They should collaborate as much as possible for the passage of just laws and ordinances. For Francis, work is a gift and to work is a grace. Daily work is not only the means of livelihood, but the opportunity to serve God and neighbor as well as a way to develop one's own personality. In the conviction that work is a right and a duty and that every form of occupation deserves respect, the brothers and sisters should commit themselves to collaborate so that all persons may have the possibility to work and so that working conditions may always be more humane.
Leisure and recreation have their own value and are necessary for personal development. Secular Franciscans should maintain a balance between work and rest and should strive to make meaningful use of their leisure time. Secular Franciscans are called to be bearers of peace in their families and in society The renunciation of the use of violence, characteristic of the followers of Francis, does not mean the renunciation of action. Peace is the work of justice and the fruit of reconciliation and of fraternal love. While acknowledging both the personal and national right to self-defense, they should respect the choice of those who, because of conscientious objection, refuse to bear arms.
However, the brothers and sisters should take care that their interventions are always inspired by Christian love. Secular Franciscans should consider their own family to be the first place in which to live their Christian commitment and Franciscan vocation. They should make space within it for prayer, for the Word of God, and for Christian catechesis. They should concern themselves with respect for all life in every situation from conception until death. Married couples find in the Rule of the OFS an effective aid in their own journey of Christian life, aware that in the sacrament of matrimony their love shares in the love that Christ has for his Church.
The beauty and the strength of the human love of the spouses is a profound witness for their own family, the Church, and the world. Out of the conviction of the need to educate children to take an interest in community, "bringing them the awareness of being living, active members of the People of God" and because of the fascination which Saint Francis of Assisi can exercise on them, the formation of groups of children should be encouraged.
With the help of a pedagogy and an organization suitable to their age, these children should be initiated into a knowledge and love of the Franciscan life.
National statutes will give an appropriate orientation for the organization of these groups and their relationship to the fraternity and to the groups of Franciscan youth. The Franciscan Youth is formed by those young people who feel called by the Holy Spirit to share the experience of the Christian life in fraternity, in the light of the message of Francis, deepening their own vocation within the context of the Secular Franciscan Order. Conditions for admission are: to profess the Catholic faith, to live in communion with the Church, to be of good moral standing, and to show clear signs of a vocation.
Membership in the Order is attained through a time of initiation, a time of formation, and the Profession of the Rule.