In addition, when clicking into it, Joplin does not open. Doing a case insensitive ripgrep for kaiti in the rstudio source tree comes up bupkis which you may have already figured wld be the case. Since two protocols have the same required member we generate it twice - so the C compiler is not happy. AFAIK the two protocols can be used separately, so the definition should be in both, or together and the declaration should be merged. Thread 9 Crashed: 0 iohook.
Mapbox SDK versions: 5. I use electron app on macOS with iohook and have problem with the system rights.
Part II. Indo-European Context. Kissing the Leper: The Excluded Poet in Irish Myth
Give the rights again, freezes. When using System. FirstOrDefault ;. However, when running on the simulator I do not see this issue. NullReferenceException see here for stacktrace. Version 8. Mac 5. Mac not installed. Version: Version: 1. Mac OS X Kiwix for MacOS v2. Can i run xamarin app from xcode and capture it? We need to improve this! Using Cocoapods 1. With this pod file:. In MacOS, The fonts and icons of all interfaces Console, Scripts, Menus get blurry after spending some time in another application while RStudio is maximized in its own desktop.
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I had been experiencing this issue for some time. I re-installed RStudio 1. I looked at a similar, closed, issue that happened on Windows Blurry font in Windows and I installed the latest RStudio build, which is referenced in this Issue. The R code in question NA 3. A diagnostics report diagnostics-report. Calling Objective-C exported functions for generic managed types is slower than calling exported functions for non-generic types.
This is known and documented. However, it can come as a surprise to the user , so we might want to find a way to inform the user about such scenarios. If a simulator or device is set to a non-English-speaking locale say, Japan , the following tests will fail:. I am trying to implement a proxy pattern using the ObjectiveC mechanisms for transparent forwarding of messages. Basically I want an object to respond to a selector even though there is no real method with that selector.
There are three steps to this: 1. Override respondsToSeletor: to return true for the selector you are faking. Override methodSignatureForSelector: to return a method signature for the selector which does not exist. I do this by returning the signature for a compatible method which does exist. Override forwardInvocation: to intercept the actual call to the given method and make it do something entirely different. The relevant code that causes the crash though does not appear to actually be executed is this:. It appears that the mere existence of this code in a class causes allocating that class to crash the runtime.
If I set a breakpoint in that method it never gets hit. Attached is a. This error occurs for all net versions. Only Xamarin. Mac Full Net 4. Regardless of the error, build is successful. Please provide any relevant information about your setup. This is important in case the issue is not reproducible except for under certain conditions. Please help provide information about the failure if this is a bug. If it is not a bug, please remove the rest of this template. I noticed some people online talking about how macOS mojave changed their headers. This link may be helpful but simply doing a google search of the error will bring up some good results that could give a lead as to what the problem is.
The make dist command should generate an application which works on macOS If that is not possible it should fail. On a system with Xcode This will likely block the next release of Scratch Link but does not affect any currently-available releases. Migrating Scratch Link to Swift 5 is part of the obvious approach, but that approach is complicated by the fact that the Perfect networking libraries target Swift 3 explicitly.
See the first line of Package. This should be easily accomplished with the static map rendering API, but requires collecting locations which were sent via telemetry. Create several terminal sessions 2. This is reproducible on MacOS. Read the label Guide. Version of Singularity: singularity version 3. Steps to Reproduce Create new XM app. Examine which native frameworks the app links with. If a line contains emojis, the baseline of that line will be strange. It should have been bound as a parameterless method, not as a readonly property. Actual Behavior Bad binding. Numerous little graphic glitches with strings and symbols partially hidden, some very minor trigger choices for the logic analyser, where only a small part of the symbol is shown , some more annoying measured values where the first digit is not showing, for example with cursors I could find any way to navigate through the timeline for the Logic Analyzer : no key seems to have any action, no visible slider, and the touchpad on the macbook is much too sensible to be of any use.
Read more URLCache. We should allow our users to sign up with Google directly from the desktop app. This only happens on macOS Actual Behavior On macOS Environment macOS Hello, I am trying to get my app code signed, but Apple now requires all apps to be notarized. I am getting the following error back from Apple: The executable does not have the hardened runtime enabled. From the crash log it appears to be a memory allocation issue? MediaElch Version: 2.
Describe the behavior you expected The IDE should continue to work. This is not an issue in 1. My command log and output are below. Clock polarity Clock phase And I found the solution of this problem ; selected by Tab key. Because of that, I think this problem is a bug of GUI. Versions Scopy 01c4f0c macOS Mojave From moveItem at:to: Moves an item from one location to another in the collection view.
From NSSegmentedControl The features of a segmented control include the following: A segment can have an image, text label , menu, tooltip, and tag. Things worth mentioned for vertical scrolling textContainer. For the convenience of the users who usually have really long project names and descriptions. The disk drive is a container, and shared by some volumes.
By default. Version of Singularity: MacOS alpha Expected behavior no error message Actual behavior I am trying to install singularity directly on my MacBook, since there is an alpha version. Steps to reproduce behavior Write here. Nice-to-have low prio that would free up the thread pool for more useful work. The other. NET providers are supported, so this change is effectively trivial. Several dependencies must be swapped out for drop-in replacements on Nuget which target. NET 4. But, I find below code seems not a good practice.
FillAudioData …. Actual Behavior The implementation seems not a good one. Add fonts to targets Declare in Info. Version : v Some icons are wider than others, this causes things to be pushed over. My configuration: iPhone 7 plus, iOS Periodically our application crashes on OSX with logs info provided below. Expected Behavior Work without crashing. It looks like an access to invalid pointers. Your Environment Version used: 0. Chrome 39, node.
Version of Singularity:
Any ideas? Description When using System. Forms HotReload extension 1. Or has the stability on macOS been fixed? Please note the release version or commit hash: v2. Everything else menu bar, config window etc. For issues or feature requests related to the code in this repository file a Github issue. For general technical questions, post a question on StackOverflow with the firebase tag. For general Firebase discussion, use the firebase-talk google group. For help troubleshooting your application that does not fall under one of the above categories, reach out to the personalized Firebase support channel.
Maximize window. Open any other application or go back to another Desktop. Wait some undefined time. The fonts and icons are blurry. Describe the problem in detail In MacOS, The fonts and icons of all interfaces Console, Scripts, Menus get blurry after spending some time in another application while RStudio is maximized in its own desktop. Other ideas? Submitted by a community member on UTC I am trying to implement a proxy pattern using the ObjectiveC mechanisms for transparent forwarding of messages. Handle, sel. Visual Studio Mac 8. Very irritating………. Does this mean, I have to use net 4.
Am I not allowed to use net 4. Context Please provide any relevant information about your setup. Steps to Reproduce Please provide detailed steps for reproducing the issue. Probably need a logger class, environ wrapper, OS class? Hypostases of a god break off and take on lives of their own; one god will encroach upon the religious territory of another god and perhaps absorb that god in the process, or perhaps the pillaged god will keep his independence but see his sphere of influence restricted- unless he can move into some other god's territory.
The ancestry of some gods is untraceable; some gods seem totally foreign. But for some it is clear that there is a core that goes back to the very earliest history of their people. This is the case with Odin. Wodan is certainly a Germanic god, but that which is basic to him goes back to PIE times, and as we are going to see, his analogs can be found among all the daughter peoples of whose religion we know anything at all. Part I. To Gylfi's question, "Who is the highest or the oldest of all the gods? This is commonly translated "Herrscher," i.
Herjan goes back to a germ. While "Lat. Portunus is effectively the master of the ports, and Gothic piudans that of the people[, i]t is difficult to interpret the name of Neptunus in the same way. The connexion between Neptunus and the element of water cannot be transposed as such into the social domain. In fact here we have an incarnation, not the exercise of. Likewise Go. Ole drouinn 'lord, master,' providing the word for 'the Lord' , 'chief Zoega , corresponding to OE dryhten with the same meanings, goes back to Gmc.
Coral Gables: U. We can therefore say that Piudans personifies his people. In this chapter we will be looking at Odin as leader of several different "armies" or "troops," starting with the he" for which be is most famous. Here we find ourselves "auf typisch indogermaniscbem Boden, am deutlichsten im Germanischenerkennbar. Die Vorsteberbezeichnung ist bier our eine Ableitung der entsprechenden Gemeinscbaftsbezeich- nung: germ. Sie baben individualisierendeund zugleich reprasentierende Bedeutung. Der auf diese Weise aus einem Personenkreise herausgehobenen Person kommt wohl in jedem Falle ein Fiibrungsanspruch zu, der sicb zur Herrschaft steigem kann, doch ist nicht erkennbar, da8 ein Herrschaftsverhaltnis von Anfang an ausgedriickt werden soil.
Seine geistigen und rechtlichen Grwullagen. Vortrage und Vorscbungen, bsg. Chapter 2. The Einheriar. What bas he got to offer them for food? I should have thought that there must be a pretty large number there? As for drink, "There is a goat called Heiorun standing on top of Val-hall feeding on the foliage of that tree whose name is well known, it is called Lerad, and from the goat's udder flows mead with which it fills a vat each day.
This is so big that all the Einheriar can drink their fill from it. Gangleri finds all this quite amazing and inquires as to the size of Valhall. High quotes Grfmnismit Fimm hundrae dura ok of fj6rum tegum, svi hygg ek i Valhollu vera. The following is from Gylf. Eddie poetry is cited according to Neckel, 4. Auflage; poetry translations are mine. Thus Valhall can accomodate at least , warriors, and Gangleri is curious as to how they pass their time when they are not drinking. All the information which High has passed on to Gangleri comes from Grm.
Snorri, who often knows more than the poetic sources he quotes, this time has no more than what is available to us. Oddly, Volusp. The cock wakes them: G61 um asom Gullinkambi, s. Five hundred doors and forty more I reckon there are at Valhall. Eight hundred einheriar at a time will go through each door when they go to fight the Wolf. All the einheriar in Odin's fortress fight each other every day. They kill each other and ride from the battle, then sit together reconciled.
Gullinkambi crows among the. At least it seems safe to assume that the heroes chez War-Father are his einheriar; but there is not a word of their marching out and engaging in the fight. There is no reason to doubt that they are there, however; it is the nature of heroic poetry to describe the fights of individual heroes as if war were a series of single-combats and the army as a whole did not exist. Here the gods are the combatants.
The material from Grm. Some of it is certainly very old, but in many places the rhythm of the been broken into and long lists of names added, as if some redactor had decided that this was a good place to store stray bits of lore. The Mannerbund, of which the einheriar is a mythical paradigm, was always seen as a guardian against the forces of disintegra- tion, as will be discussed further on.
What is uniquely Germanic, or perhaps Nordic, is that this role has been moved into the future and made eschatological. Actually, the battle to maintain the cosmos is ongoing, and paralleling Thor as the individual monster-fighter there are the. Where such poems omit, for instance, some of the names of Odin or other material valuable to skalds, the omission is often made good in a different metre, as if the collector, or some predecessor of his, were indifferent to the artistic merits of the poems, and were merely putting together all the relevant material be could find.
For now it is enough to say that in the tenth century, at least, it was not just literary myth but living belief that a dead warrior could expect to go to Valhall. This belief framed the myth which would then explain why Odin always betrayed his favorites. The einheriar are, of course, "the dead heroes in Valhalla;" the word is generally interpreted as "the 'only' or great champions" C-V The singular einheri is attested once only, in Lokasenna 60,4,.
When you were crouching, cowering in the thumb of the glove, 0 mighty Champion, you sure dido 't come across as Thor! The story is told in Gylf. We will deal with the second element first. These nouns, which bad become rare by the time of our written sources, are generally rather loosely called agent nouns," The simplex heri exists in the singular neither in Ole nor in any other Gmc. Einheri, einheriar is thus a fossil; the common Ole man's name Einarr goes back to it, as well as einarlJr "bold" and einiJrlJ "valora' C-V I will return to the Einheriar shortly, but it is now time to look at the he" itself.
Perhaps because they were largely replaced by the familiar -er type with ending borrowed from Lat. Some nouns of this type still exist in German, barely any in Eng. M[d next to Dutch herder; Schutze cf. They are actually substantivized adjectives: to a noun Xis formed an adjective showing "belonging to" by means of a -ja "suffix fiir zugehorigkeit" Kluge 5 ; this X-ja adjective is then capped with -n to form a noun. Since herr army is itself a masc. Volker- namen wie Tri-, Petru-corii, deren 1. Element 'drei', 'vier' bedeutet. Flasdieck, "Harlekin. The related verb, ON herja; OB hergian, heriran; OHG herron, herion, means "make a predatory raid, destroy, lay waste, plunder, despoil, commit ravages.
So if herja, etc. And in fact, in OE, the noun here "is the word which in the Chronicles is always used of the Danish force in England, while the English troops are always the fyrd; hence the word is always used for devastation and robbery" Bosworth- Toller. The noun, then, which dropped out of English and became in German the word for army Heer, n , meant "Menge, Schar," "troop, raiding-party. War was rauia: theft of livestock and abduction of women.
Even the Trojan war was a large- scale razzia far afield. Geoffrey S. In ancient India, "the importance of winning cattle is reflected in the frequently used term for "battle," Skt. The Iranian evidence backs this up. Walcot Walcot suggests that the ship fresco from Thera may illustrate this aspect of Minoan-Mycenaean warfare. Bruce Lincoln, Priests, Warriors,and Cattle.
Los Angeles: U. The Norse or Anglo-Saxon warrior rallies bis mates around their lord by reminding them of all the gold he bas given them. We have progressed from pecus to pecunia as wealth and therefore as a sign of honor and the appropriate geras, but otherwise warfare in the heroic age of Germania is much as it was in the heroic age in Greece and India. These herjar were bound to their lords or chiefs by strong ties of personal loyalty, so much so that it was a disgrace for a man to outlive his leader, an honor to fall with him, and all the more, at least in poetry, when the battle was doomed from the start: one has only to think of the OE Malden; or the end of Hr6lfs saga Kraka, when Hjalti, with a rousing speech, which goes back to an old Bjarkamdl, urges Hrolf's men to fight and fall as a living shield around this most generous of kings.
Their devotion to their lord is easier to understand if we view him, with Benveniste, as more than leader of the band, but really its embodiment: the piudans as not. And so, when the question arises as to whether or not Odin was "originally" a war-god, the answer is that Odin was originally the mythical leader and personification of the he"; that is the kind of war-god he was.
This is precisely what we have in Go. Gothic harjis was the tribal army. In Germania, for example, under. Band, Heft 8. Wien, For Celtic cognates, de Vries WB gives gall. Tricorii, Pettucorii. Herwig Wolfram, History of the Goths. Razzias were the business of the adolescent boys, who functioned as highly mobile guerilla bands and at the same time learned hardiness, self-control, stealth and strategy, and other warrior qualities. This will be the subject of Part Il.
The commonly used term for this cultic band is Mllnnerbund, and this is the term we will use in this study. Thor Einheri and the Einherjar. Kim R. McCone, "Hund, Wolf uod Krieger bei den lndogermanen. Innsbruck: lnnsbrucker Beitrage zur Spracbwissenscbaft, passim. It is not an ideal term. The youths are not men yet, and that is important, as we are going to see. But the term bas been used by anthropologists since at least the tum of the century, and so it is established jargon, and the terms which are sometimes used to replace it are not, in my opinion, improvements.
C-V has for Thor "thou great champion," and for the einheriar "the 'only' or great champions. They point to the Valkyries, who "choose the slain" and bring them to Valhall. But val kjosa does not mean to choose which of the slain get to go to Valhall; it means something far more sinister. And I have a suggestion for Einheri. In Skt. Of the class of the rlJjanya, the actual king is the ekartJj. From among the Vrityas, an Indian Mii.
Likewise Rudra himself is ekadeva. We will meet these figures in Part m, esp. As well as the ot of L. Which of course he is! And that is precisely what the einheriar are as well. Thus it might well go back to that illusive Indogermanische Dichiersprache which is the subject of a collection of essays by that name, ed. Chapter 3. Der Schbnmelreiur.
Poet as Warrior
Wodan's name has been associated with a spectral host which has been seen at least into the beginning of this century throughout Germania, galloping madly through the night sky over field and forest and through village streets. The host is known, in any given area, under one of two primary forms: Willendes Heer and Wilde Jagd. The Hunt is more common in north and middle Germany, the Host in the south, but there is no clear dividing line; parts of southern Germany know the Hunt, parts of the north know the Host.
It was known in France as the maisnie Hellequin. England knew the Hunt'. The entire complex is extremely complicated and need not concern us. It is evident that Wodan attracted a mass of folklore elements which originally had nothing to do with him, but there are also elements which properly belong to his cult, as well as many which at first glance would seem to have no religious value at all, until we find them again in some other part of the IE world where contact.
Riders "qui vulgari gallicano hellequin, et vulgari hispanico exercitus antiquus ['span. Harlequin, of course, bad a great career on the English stage; Flasdieck's article traces his development. I am going to describe Hunt and Host briefly, picking out of the general confusion those elements which originally belonged to Wodan or which have interesting echoes elsewhere. Seen in the Host variant were armed men, who might do battle with one another.
In both there were dogs and wolves; in some areas werewolves went into houses and stole beer and sometimes also food. There were two, three, six and eight-legged horses; often there were figures with fiery eyes. The Host frequently had a man who went out in front, warning people to get out of the streets. There were men dressed all in black, with black faces. Frequently there was a wagon, a sledge, even a plough.
Handworkers of every sort displayed their tools, and there might be acrobats and jugglers in the throng. A feature peculiar to the Hunt variant was the pursuit and capture of one or more female demons, although the prey might be a hart, or there might be no prey at all. Complicating the picture are variants of the Hunt.
Odin v1.85 Download
In one there is a lone Hunter-der Wilde Jager himself-with his hounds, but no hunting party; he is after one of these ghastly witches, which, when he catches her, be flings over his horse. The Leader of the Host might be identified as one of the heroes of old, often Dietrich of Bern. Different localities have their own stories connected with these appearances, and many a village has its "Toller Jigergraben" or "Muotesheergasse," indicatingthe company's habitual route. Sometimes children who had died unbaptised, and recently departed public sinners, were seen in the retinue.
And despite the horrifying nature of this procession of ghosts and demons, the people awaited it with eager anticipation, because its coming brought fertility to field and flock. The troop typically appeared during the holy twelve nights between Christmas and Epiphany, and in Germany also at Cameval and sometimes on the eve of other important feasts'.
Legend, Myth, and Cult. Otto Hofler showed, in Kultische Geheimbande der Germanen, , that Host and Hunt can be explained by actual cult practices of the Wodan religion6, but more: that the spectral troops which Wodan leads-. Otto Hofler, Yerwandlungskulte,Yolkssagenund Mythen. Band, 2. And by other cultic practices, proper to the same times of the year, which understandably got conflated with the Wodan cult once the significance of these pagan rites bad been forgotten; and a few late accretions which are also easily explained.
Hofler's embrace of National Socialism severely damaged his credibility with the teamed community; it is also true that KGG is a youthful, exhuberant, sprawling, and often frustrating work. Meuli continued to develop this topic over the course of many years; apart from his article on masks for Bachtold-Staubli HB, the articles are collected under the heading "Zum Maskenwesen" in volume l of Gesam- melte Schriften, hrsg v.
Earlier yet, K. Dilthey bad seen the same features mirrored in the Wild Hunts of Artemis and Dionysos'". Jarl Charpentier, and following him J. Hauer, understood that, far from being a foreign and marginal group, the Vrityas were at the center of Indian religion and religious history. It was so fundamental that every daughternation retained fragments of the picture, like pieces of a puzzle; but, as with a jigsaw puzzle, if the picture of the completed puzzle and the frame are missing, it is nearly impossible to make sense of the individual pieces, or even to know whichpieces belong to it.
The tum of the century saw the publication of several important ethnological studies of Mannerbiinde, masks, and rites of passage in. Haessel Verlag, Charpentier, "Uber Rudra-Siva. Hauer, Die Vrdlya. Stuttgart: Kohlbammer, Stig Wikander was inspired by KGG to write Der arische Mtinnerbund, also , which was itself an impetus to further study. The scope of this book is world-wide; the cattle-herding societies of Africa serve as our model for IE society. Heidelberg: Winter. Meanwhile, folklorists and historians of religion were investigating ancestor cults, the ecstatic experience, rites of passage and other elements of the complex, and the New Comparative Mythologyof Dumezil and his followers had led to a whole new way of looking at the pagan gods.
The result is that it is no longer possible to dismiss Hofler's findings in KGG. All the research has not only reinforced them but found the same things all over Indogermania, wherever there is any information at all concerning cult or myth. Hofler himself continued to write on the subject of the Wodan religion to the end of his life.
The Dead and the Living. These stories Sagen of a wild host or hunt go back, not to the howling of the winter wind or the barking cries of migrating birds, nor to personal difficulties such as epilepsy, hallucinations, or drunkenness, but to actual cult processions of maskers, the direct descendants of which are the Carneval and Mardi Gras processions of our own time.
In pre- Christian times these had a deep religious significance; behind the cult acts Brliuche were what Hofler called "core myths" Kem-Mythen 1D. First there is the universal belief that there is something in man which is. Hofler VK 12f. Then there is the wide-spread belief that a divine or holy force is at work in the miracle of growth.
Just as general, it would seem, is the belief that there is something in man which is not destroyed by physical death. And that which lives on is not the conventional modem idea of a soul as some bodiless puff Hauchseele : what lives on is the life force Lebenskraft itself". And despite all evidence to the contrary, this force is believed to live on in its own body.
It is the person himself who lives. And be is now immortal, for he cannot die again. Three features, writes Meuli, govern the primitive's conception of the dead person: He continues to live. He is powerful. He is at once well disposed and malicious".
The third indicates an emotional ambivalence on the part of the living members of society toward the dead member, which is only enhanced by the second which indicates that the dead man can be very dangerous, although he can also be a valued helper and defender. This ambivalence is universal, but in some societies it is fear of the dead which predominates, while in others it is the desire to remain in communion with the dead, who are felt to have an interest in the well-being of their family and tribe.
Among the Indo-Europeans it is the second attitude which prevailed, as also among the African tribes in the studies mentioned. Ranke discusses concepts of life after death as revealed in the customs of the IE peoples; his work, where it touches on Hofler's, reinforces it. For attitudes towards death and the dead cross-culturally see Meuli, GS I, Their Dead are the honored ancestors, but they are more: they are the Immortals, in whom the life-force, that divine spark, is far more potent and efficacious now that they are no longer mortal. In fact it is the dead warriors with whom we are concerned.
Whether the man has died in battle or of old age, he lives on as the warrior in the prime of his youth; naturally: it is in the young warrior that the life-force manifests itself most abundantly. Such immortal warriorsare the Einheriar of the preceding chapter. Age Sets and Ancestor Cult. In the African warrior and cattle-herding societies studied, males were divided into three or four age classes. There might be a class of. While they lived on as warriors, it was by no means necessary for them to have died in battle. Their original character, that of powerful and helpful Ancestors, lives on in the notion of their fighting alongside the gods against the forces of chaos.
As the motif developed in the North, their help will be of no use to us, for this earth and everything on it, as well as Odin's generation of gods, will be destroyed; but it is this which is late, not the Einheriar; see KGG Wikander sees the same conception in early Iran in the fravasis: "die Totenseelen als das Totenheer, das in den Klimpfender Lebenden sich beteiligt" AM Karl Hauck remarks concerning the Sutton Hoo site, "Wenn dem toten Herrscber in sein Grab aucb seine Standarte mitgegeben wurde, so darf manjedenfalls im Bereicb wodanistischerReligion erwagen, ob seine Zeit sich den Herrscher nicht als Fuhrer einer Toten-Gefolgschaftgedacht hat.
These bad wives and children and herds of cattle; they carried on the business of the tribe and, in the event of war, were the organized, disciplined fighting force of their people. At the very bottom were the little boys, who really still belonged with the women and were not part of the system. At some point before puberty, these little boys were taken from the world of women to be trained in the fighting skills and the lore of their people and initiated into the world of men.
They would be the scouts, the guerilla fighters: highly mobile bands of ecstatic warriors who would fling themselves first into the fray. The age at which the boys underwent this first rite of passage differs from group to group. We know that at Sparta they were seven; there is good evidence that they were very young in ancient India s. The severity of the hardships to which the boys were subjected varied as. In point of fact, the existence of a class of elders meant that the society had reached a stage of relative oppulence and stability. If victuals were scarce and competition for Lebensraum was intense, Nestor's wisdom would be an unaffordable luxury.
For lndogermania, Widengren, Feudalismus ; and our 6 and 7. Typically, for a good part of the period the boy lived in the forest like the beasts of the forest; he became a hardy and krafty bunter and fighter. But that was only part of becoming a man of his people. As a family man and citizen he would have to know the correct prayers and cultic practices, as well as the history of bis tribe. This was knowledge, veda, long before there were written Vedas. It is not possible here to go into every permutation of this system. Important for us is that the passage was from the limbo world of women and other non-initiates into the set of the men of the tribe, all the men who had ever lived.
Initiation involved a real death; the child died, and a man of the tribe was born. But that is the only real death, since only the sacred reality is really real and meaningful". The initiate is "more real" than the uninitiated. His physical death is meaningless. Johannes Snoek, Initiations. Pijnacker: Dutch Efficiency Bureau, KGG If initiation is a "real" death, then real death is also an initiation into "a new mode of being.
It is time to return to the Furious Host and the cult practices behind the legend. It is of the nature of the dead that they are not seen2'. It is too little to say that they represent the dead darstellen. They actually make them present vergegenwirtigen. The means by which they become the dead are Masks. By mask we do not necessarily mean something which covers the face. The most primitive form of masking is simply painting the face and body ", And.
Waugh, Eds. University Park: The Pennsylvania U. The dead who are seen in the sagas are draugar, an unnatural and unhealthy condition, and no one wants them around; they are spooks. This is something completely different. On the subject of the unseen dead, and the unseen god of the dead: Hermann Guntert, Kaiypso, Halle a. The dead and their god have much in common.
Tacitus' blackened Harli are masked in this wise; ashes and water are readily available to this purpose. Still others might be just a cap of animal skin or of the actual top of the animal's bead. Meuli argues convincingly that the pilleus, the felt cap which was the symbol of freedom at the Saturnalia, was originally such a "mask. The animals which, in addition to the horse, are found in the Furious Host are the dog and wolf and often the bear.
These are, of. Meuli tells of Australian tribes which have fully developed ancestor cults such as we will be describing without progressing beyond the stage of face and body painting. GS I 72 n2. GS I One of the three forms of the pilleus, according to Suetonius, is the galerus. These are all warrior animals; let us not forget Juno as a goatskin-clad warrior goddess; for weasel- more likely wolverine- warriorssee Alfoldi, Struktur 37ff.
Pre-Augustinian bronze statuettes show the lar wearing a cap like the pilleus, though it was probably of dog-skin. The dog, the wolf, and the horse are also Totenaere, animals which are intimately associated with death in IE myth and iconography. This overlap is no coincidence, as we shall see. What must be stressed now is that the purpose of the masks is neither to make the masker look like an animal-even our fully masked wolf-dancer is clearly human, and everyone knows it, since his legs and hands are uncovered-nor is it to disguise the masker.
The mask shows that the wearer is a dzmonic, or more-than-natural, being. This is one of those fascinating phenomena which can be demonstrated world-wide among peoples who cannot have been in contact for tens of thousands of years. Wherever there are mask cults, these are ancestor cults; the masks transform the wearer into an Ancestor.
Meuli gives abundant examples of these cults in the Americas, in Africa, in Australia and in the Pacific islands. Evidently the practice answers a pressing universal human need. For the classical world, esp. Among the early Germans, the names of the masks reveal what they were felt to be. The following is from Meuli GS I, In the Edictum Rothari , it is forbidden to kill a woman quasi strigam quam dicunt mascam.
Zugleich mu8 aberdas Wort auch 'Gesicbtsverbiillung','Vennummter' bedeutet haben, wie aus dem spiteren Sprachgebraucb, aber aucb aus friihangelsachsi- schen Glossen 7. For masca and talamasca see also Guntert, Kalypso f. Used as synonym of schembart and larva. The meaning is disputed. AHD scema; Schembart. Schemen, und bezeichnet als solches gewi6 ein Seelenwesen, wie latein.
Die Maske hei6t dann mhd. Fiir die Zeit des Schembart-Lau- fens ist das eben angefiihrte schweizerische Zeugnis fiir das Ende des Hirtenjahres Alpentladung als offenbar hochaltertiimlichsehr wichtig. AHD griina. Die Glosse scenici. Besessene, freilich im religiosen, nicht im medizinischen Sinn, sind die bei solchen Festen haufigen Maskentriger. Certainly not out of nostalgia for the world they left. No, but because they care about their descendants.
For it is they, the ancestors, who gave us not only our lives but our way of life, our customs and ordinances. So they return, at certain times of the year, to guard the order which they themselves established in illo tempore. This is why, in every land where they. The Ancestors require a religious devotion.
Not everyone is able to participate in the Sacred; therefore a Warner goes before them, telling people to clear the streets, or they wear bells or sound noise-making instruments. This devotion will take a material form: they expect to be wined and dined; in Germanic lands they display a great thirst for beer. It is their right to break into a house or inn, indeed to ride their horses right through the door, and take whatever they want. If they receive the required devotion and find everything in order, they will shower the village or farm with blessings for the coming year.
And why, where they evolve from pure age-group systems to closed societies or Gebeimbilnde, they frequently evolve into secret police; examples in Schurtz Jahrbundert gelaufig gewesen. Nun sind Dachabdecken, Tiiraushingen und Brunnenwiisten oft verbunden mit dem loschen des Herdfeuers Meuli GS I ; cf. What about everyone else? Don't they know that these are their own sons and brothers?
This is the part that is hardest for us to comprehend. Writes Meuli, "die Versuche des Menschen, seinem Erlebnis des mysterium tremendum fascinasum Gestalt zu geben, haben immer wieder zu selt- samen, uns grotesk anmutenden Formen gefiihrt, und docb bringen sie fur ihre Verehrer das Numinose zu iiberzeugendemAusdruck.
We simply have to take the word of ethnologists who have studied this phenomenon as living belief that indeed all the members of the communi- ty were cult-participants; there simply were no "spectators" who could say, Heck, that's only the kid from next-door". Where our comprehension is if anythingeven more strained is when. Indogermania and concludes, "Nach allem miissen also diese Achter- strafen wobl indogermaniscbesErbe sein; ihr Erscbeinen im Maskenrecbt verschiedener indogermaniscber Volker stiitzt die Annabme, auch das Maskenwesen selbst reiche in so hohes Altertum zunick.
What is involved is a "fester Glaube an eine wirldiche Verwandlung, an ein Eingeben in den Totenzustand. Dafur spricbt das Erlebnisgefubl sowohl der Brauchtumstrager wie der mehr oder minder beteiligten Zuscbauer. Gerade die Berichte der Letzteren betonen ja immer wieder, da6 es Tote sind, die in diesen Kulteo agiereo uod keine menschlicben Darsteller oder Maskentrager. The Host, the Hunt, the Perchten, the Oskarei and the rest persisted in many places at least into the beginning of this century, and people really believed the rides brought blessings, even though they also knew that village youths were behind the masks".
Now I want to return to the stories of the Host and Hunt, because by now we have seen where many of the elements come from. The armed men are the most obvious component of the Host; armed men who fight one another recall the Binheriar. Oddly, this is an element which dropped out.
The blackened men are the feralis exercitus, Wodan's dsemonic warriors, who are the Dead. We have briefly explained the dogs and wolves; the Canidae are so important symbolically to that aspect of Germanic and IE culture on which this study is focused that they require a chapter to themselves.
As to the werewolves who stole beer and food, they were exercising their sakraler Stehlrechi. The Warner, we have seen, went before to protect people from contact with the sacred. As opposed to Mardi Gras and other celebrations which continue only because they are fun. Hofler explains this at length in Yerwandlungskulte Dumezil's handling of the whole matter of belief, on the part of maskers and onlookers alike, Les Problemes de Centaures Paris: Geutbner, 48f, comes very close to Huizinga's understanding of "play" as set forth in the first chapter of Homo Ludens Boston: Beacon, Demon horses.
Then there were the demon-horses. These were of course masks, and could be: two legs a man wearing a horse mask and a white cloth, or one man riding a stick horse, with a white cloth representing the horse's body and only the man's two legs representing the horse's legs; three legs a horse's head, wooden or otherwise, on a stick held by a man, again covered in white, leaning on the stick, bis upper body horizontal to represent the horse's body; six or eight legged horses were made up of three or four men covered in white, the first one holding or wearing a horse's head; there are also headless horses and headless horsemenl " Obviously realism is not the point; there were plenty of real horses", although these too, if not white Weiftschimmel , might be covered with a white sheet.
The "wrong" number of legs indicates that this is a demonic being. These could take on a great importance. Taking together the Centaurs with their human upper bodies and horses' bodies and the Gandharvas with their human bodies and horses' heads, Dumezil concluded that there had been an m cultic brotherhood of horse-maskers. The myths surrounding these beings make this appear likely, and folklore survivals would place the rites at the winter solstice; see Centaures passim, esp. I, and Jeanmaire, Couroi ff. Wolfram, Robin Hood. As we have seen, the masks are not attempting to be realistic.
The principle can be thought of as pars pro toto, perhaps, as long as we keep in mind that the whole which is here represented is no ordinary wolf or horse but a supernatural-demonic-being. Now horse-masks, in the Germanic world at least, are often found in the same cultic milieu as sword-dances; the hobby-horse, sword-dance and cultic brotherhoods were studied exhaustively by Richard Wolfram. At the time the dance was performed for the English Folk- Dance Society, the men were wearing predominantly white Sunday clothes, but in the past they used to wear women's clothes.
The dance was performed around Whitsuntide, "when the fairies are most dangerous to people;" the dancers personified the fairies and also propitiated them lOOf. A nineteenth century description indicates that the first dancer carried in his hands a carved horse-head The writer calls attention to a similar dance performed in Central Prussia on the third day of Whitsuntide by a group of male and female dancers who go in procession from house to house, receiving gifts; with them is "a person like an artificial horse" called Schimmelriner I am not about to suggest I know what all this might mean.
The "fairies" could well be the spirits of the dead or these plus assorted autochthonous spirits left over from pagan times, which, as we know, tend to remain in place long after the old gods have all departed. The time of year is wrong for an ancestor cult, the mixed men and women even worse; ritual transvestism is common cultic practice; it looks as if pieces of one cult got broken off and recombined with pieces of other, properly summer or first-fruits, cults. This is not at all uncommon, once the original religious content of the practices has been forgotten.
Centered on Greece, and amply illustrated with photographs of pottery and steles, it also brings in comparative material. The horse is one of the favorite forms under which "chthonic powers" manifest themselves. Horses are connected with both Hades and the "chthonic" Poseidon, that is Poseidon the Earthsbaker, before he moved into the ocean".
Death-demons are pictured riding or driving; they can snatch people and carry them off to their realm. One of these was Dietrich of Bern, which is why he sometimes leads the Host as an Odin surrogate. There are also demonic horses which deliver their masters to the powers of death, as Pegasos did Bellerophontes".
The divinity can ride the horse or be the horse, but "das Totenro6 ist urspninglicher als die Gottheit. Jahrbuch des archaologischen Instiuas XIX, Of course Maiten acknowledges that this is only one side of the horse. The other side is the divine horse, das Sonnenro8, the Dioslcuroi: the white horse as radiant rather than spectral. For the Gmc. People sometimes appear after their deaths as ghost- horses; like the death-god, the dead can either ride or be the horse. Thus we see the horse as Totentier, the white or grey horse as the ghost horse, the horse-maskwith two few or two many legs representing the demon-horse, and we see Odin as the rider of the demon-horse.
Odin is indeed the Rider-God. His names are AtrUlr 4 , be who rides out to battle, "den som rier frem til kamp ifr. Let us recall what was said above I. Whether or not frar is normally used of riding is immaterial. Falk, Considering what was said above, we will not be surprised to find Miti which are horse names. Jalla 92 appears fairly frequently in both prose and poetry, and indeed Odin calls himself twice by this name in Grfmnismil: 49,3 Odin says be called himself Jdlt at Osrrumdar, i.
Now Jailer means gelding and bas therefore aroused a certain amount of comment. Falk, remarking that stallions at the height of their procreative powers were sacrificed to Freyr for increase of flock and field, suggests that Jalkr as an Odin-name probably means "something else. My own suggestion is that, at the time in the preliterary past when Odin acquired the name, it did not mean gelding. Terms for barnyard animals seem to be particularly fluid. Steller, Phol Odin appears once as driver: for Harald Wartooth, who is too old to ride into battle.
Odin has already betrayed the king by revealing the wedge formation, his gift to Harald, to the enemy; then he tosses his old protege out of the cart and clubs him to death with his own weapon. Falk 20; cf Steller Odensheite Grfmr, Gnmnir , from grlma, mask, in Grm. German Stute is mare; Eng. Gestut, a breeding farm, but a "stud horse" is always a breeding stallion, not a mare. Stier in Ger. Widder is ram, the Eng cognate wether is a castrated goat or sheep. If Jalkr meant "horse," it was as good a name as rnr or Hunding, or for that matter Hengist and Horsa.
It was in any event an established divine name. In the thulur and in Gautreks saga, where Odin as Starkad's foster- father calls himself Grani and Hrossharsgrani. Grani, according to de Vries WB , means '"pferd', eig. This is presumably where de Vries gets bis horse, which is otherwise unknown.
Grani would be "the grey," that is, the Schimmel itself. Falk thinks Grani Sleipnisson is the basis of RauDgrani , too "egentl. Valer is attested as a horse's name according to Sijmons-Gering. Arvakr is one of the two horses which draw the sun-chariot. We have now discussed all the elements of the stories of the Wild Hunt which properly belong to the cult of Odin. Before moving on to those elements which have gotten mixed in from somewhere else, it should be noted that the Ancestors, as a part of their ongoing concern for their desceodents, are thought to bring blessings to family, flock and field.
This is why the Huot was believed propitious, and why people welcomed it despite the chaos and even danger that came with it, an attitude which persisted long after religious practice bad become mere folk custom, as Hofler, Meuli, Wolfram and others have amply attested. And so, while the fertility aspects of the cult became all-important, after the conversion, among the country people who kept up these practices, they were always present. Odin's hoary beard was part of his favorite disguise, while Langbaror identifies him with the Langobards.
Was Odin "der Maskengott"? I believe so. We know that cult processions formed an important part of the great feasts in the IE world; descriptions of these processions, especially those connected with the feasts of Dionysos, have come down to us from Greece, and in Mahilblulrata VU, ff there is a particularly vivid description of a feast preceded by such a procession, which, led by bands of ecstatics, goes about in the land spreading blessings and increase.
We know, too, that these great feasts encompassed every aspect of community life, and every group, or representatives of every group, participated, each group having its own important role to play. Likewise there are fertility rites in every great feast, even in societies which are not primarily agricultural.
If the women do not bear and the cows do not calve, the folk wilJ not thrive even if the men are successful in battle. Thus it is not surprising to find weapon-dancesand rain-dances as part of. Interesting that von Schroeder, who was the first to assert that the Maruts in the air corresponded to something on the ground, also bad to separate out the fertility features. Hier haben wir den alten Seelen- und Fruchtbar- keitsgott Wodan, aus welchem sich der nordische Odin erst verhaltnis- mii6ig spat so hoch hinauf entwickelt hat, noch als volkstumlichen Fruchtbarkeitsdamon vor uns, noch halb oder auch ganz theriomorphisch gedacht..
An Arya and a Sudra battled for a white bide representing the sun, just as in illo tempore the gods and demons fought over the sun. The gods won, and the Aryan wins, assuring that the gods' victory is ongoing. There were ritual dialogues, crude varieties of the Verbal Contest. In one, two men alternately praised and reviled the sacrificers.
The other was a phallic dialog between a whore cult prostitute? There was ritual copulation, originally, apparently, a free-for-all on the sacrificial grounds, later performed by a representativecouple. Marriageable girls performed a rain-dance. And there were "shamanistic" elements involving the hotar priest's ecstatic experiences on a swing.
And much more besides. This is all worth noting because, although the feast described bas already evolved from the original model62, it is the earliest evidence we have of a very primitive IE festival-primitive, and yet extremely complex, with highly developed symbolism, obviously requiring the. The agones, so important in Greece, were suppressed in India, and by the time of Hauer's sources the chariot race was a procession, and the archery had been reinterpreted as a form of rain-magic. Among the Scandinavian rock-carvings are depictions of cult processions with wagons, ships drawn on sledges, and ploughs".
We know of a procession with a ship as part of the fertility cult of Nerthus on the Continent Germania Wheels representing the sun are transported on wagons; later these wheels seem to have been reinterpreted as Wheels of Fortune";. All this is described minutely, and with illustrations, in Almgren and in Peter Gelling and H. Sometimes the wheel bas a man attached to it. It is not clear whether this is supposed to be the little fellow often seen on the Wheel of Fortune or someone undergoing some medieval torture, a soul-mate to the hanged men who appear and who really do have a connection to Odin, although what this was had surely been forgotten on the Continent in the Middle Ages.
While the Mannerbunde disappeared with, if not before, the eradication of pagan worship, exclusive men's societies of other sorts, most notably the guilds, sprang up to fiJl the void. Thus we find band. The acrobats and jugglers might seem a later addition, too, except for the fact that we find them in India in the thiasos of Rudra-Siva.
The sightings of men who bad died a violent death, of public sinners and unbaptisedchildren, can be dismissed as Christian folk- lore or part of the clerics' attempt to make an object lesson out of an old pagan practice they could not eliminate. In the same wise the Schimmelreiter became the Devil, the maskers demons, and stories were told of the Hunter as a fervent huntsman who used to skip Sunday mass to indulge his passion for the chase and was now condemned to ride through the skies for all eternity as recompense.
But hanged men may well go back to the original cult; Odin was Hangag,w 59 , Hangaljr 60 , and Hangi 61 , and it is not unlikely that Wodan was as well, since offerings were bung up for the god in sacred groves on the Continent. In addition, Odin was reputed to be the patron of all kinds of criminals and footpads, which could be dismissed as part of bis later demonisation were not Rudra and Hermes also patrons of such rabble. It is obvious. Hunt and other ghosts reads: Wutanes her und alle sine man, di di reder und di wit tragen geradebreht und erhangen ihr suit von hinnen gangen.
When we come to elements specific to the Hunt variant the situation becomes even more complicated. Hofler and others assume that the Host is the original, since Odin was a war-god but never a hunter-god. This is true, of course. Once the talk was of "bunting," prey could be provided easily enough out of available folk-lore. The Hart is the quintessential object of the fairy-tale hunt in both German and Celtic tales, while the demon might have belonged to an old fertility cult, or at least to ancient harvest folk-lore.
On the other hand, hunting is an important aspect of the lives of the adolescents; some related gods, notably Rudra again, are Wild Hunters; and one has only to look to Ireland to see bow important hunting can be in the mythology of the bands". Then there is the question of the Wild Huntresses.
These again could be dismissed as assorted demons who got attracted to the Host after. The mad gallop, still a Yule custom in Scandinavia in the 's Wolfram Julumritte , is itself magical, a kind of Bewegungsritus. When Beck refers to hunting as a "Sinnbild des Kampfes" Stanzen the statement is true for life as well as literature. Through hunting, along with raiding, the group of youths becomes a "Verband stets kampf- bereiter Krieger" Schurtz See chapt. Thanks to Prof.
But Bede calls the Twelve nights modra nect! Finally it is necessary to add that the Huntresses, one or several, were portrayed by masked men or boys". The processions, like processions to cult sites elsewhere, certainly bad set routes which they traveled. As to the fiery-eyed demons, we know that large sugar beets were hollowedout, carved like jack-a-lanterns and fitted with little candles, and carried on poles in these processions".
A propos of the etymology of N47, Artemis the Archeress was killer of women ere ever she became 1rorvicx pwP and a Huntress in the conventional sense; see Dilthey, Artemis passim; Martin Persson Nilsson, Griechische Feste Leipzig: Teubner, f. The reader may have recognised the origins of our Halloween customs: the feast of the Dead, the jack-c-lantern, the maskers representing spirits of the dead and later also representatives of trades cowboy, astronaut ; the repulsive custom of Trick-or-Treat is of course the direct descendent of the Heischerecbt.
Even the age of the maskers bas its parallel. The base, though, is a set of elements belonging to Wodan and the cultic brotherhoods that followed him. But who is this Harlequin? Certainly not the clown. In bis Anglia article, "Harlekin, Germanischer Mythos in romaniscber Wandlung," Flasdieck traces the history of the name and character, then gives all hitherto suggested etymologies and explanations of the name. Then be gives his own etymology, which has been accepted ever since. The fact that they are citing a real practice of the brotherhoods s. GS 40; s. Masks do not have to be worn; in addition to these little heads, which were carried on sticks and bung up as votive offerings, there are the large marble masks of the Dionysos cult, s.
Walther Wrede, "Der Maskengott," Att. Every conceivable spelling of the name will be found in TM 94lf. King Herta spent three days visiting a dwarf king in his mountain palace and discovered that two hundred years had passed up above. His host had given him a bound with the warning that no one must dismount before this hound had jumped down from the horse. Someone did and immediatelyturned to dust. Herla and his men are ever on the move; many claim to have seen them frequently. There are numerous English place-names formed from this element. Flasdieck f. For St. Gallen, Chiemsee, Fulda, "vielleicht auch Herlo St.
Gallen , 11 and some other possibilities; "vgl. Jahrhuodert, gebildet zu ae. Harelungi in der Ekkebard von Aura an der frank. Saale zugeschriebenen Wellchronik lrurz nach , ein Hinweis zu finden. Dieser stellt sich zunichst dar als patronom. Herlekin wird vomehmlich m. Der Name gebort zweifellos zu germ. But Flasdieck gives abundant examples from OE which would be bard to explain as diminutives e. Many of these, like bytla "Baumeister" to botl, house, "stellen sich neben die wohl alteren denominativen Nomina agentis auf -eno-, -ono, - no-, die von den Bereich der Amtstitigkeit bezeichnenden Nomina aus gebildet sind.
Citing Karl Karre, Nomina agentis in Mr, Hertyr, Heneitr But Map also has a Herlethingus, which is "certainly a proper name. This had already been suggested by Malone and others Then the second part of the name Harlekin would be OE cyf! The appearance of banged men in the Host must itself be secondary to the conception of the god as patron of the hanged, since they have no part in the original army. Phillips Die bier vorgetragenen Etymologie konnte man also als eine philologisch begrundete Wiederholung der Tbeorie von Phillips bezeicbnen. French did not possess a consonant corresponding to either f g or fJ.
Scbreibung -n fiir engl. Herlekin ist also ein ae. Das Wort entstammt der anglofranz. Kultursphiire; Harlekin ist ein Beitrag des germaniscben Spitaltengland zum west-europaischen Spracbscbatz. Chapter 4. Feralis uercitus. Tacitus writes concerning the Harli Gtnnania 43 :. Ceterum Harli super vires, quibus enumeratos paulo ante populos antecedunt, truces insitae feritati arte ac tempore lenocinantur: nigra scuta, tincta corpora; atras ad proelia noctes legunt ipsaque formidine atque umbra feralis exercitus terrorem inferunt, nullo hostium sustinente novum ac velut infemum aspectum; nam primi m omnibus proeliis oculi vincuntur.
Their name certainly suggests this: they are the men of the her chap. The last line implies that Tacitus, or his source, believed the blackness of their bodies, their weaponry, and the nights they chose to attack, was a trick, a form of psychological warfare. No foe can bear their strange and as it were hellish aspect; for in every battle the eyes are defeated first. No, like our Yule maskers, they believed that they were the Ancestors: an army of immortals, the dead heroes of the tribe. The effect, then, was not principally on the enemy, who, if he were German or Celt', surely had the same sort of warriors in his own tribe, but rather on the fighting men themselves.
The dead cannot be killed; neither fire nor sword can harm them, as Snorri was to say about Odin's berserks. Tacitus has given us a valuable early description of ecstatic cultic warriors. Most scholars seem to assume that the Harli were mature consecra-. According to Caesar B.
To the Roman general, who was unaware of this sort of thing in his own nation's past, the practice simply made the Britanni horridiores. We know enough about the Minnerbiinde among the Celts to feel safe in saying that the use of woad was a sign that these Britanni were the manes, that what Caesar was facing was indeed a feralis exercitus. These adolescent warriors were normally the guerrilla fighters. But one short passage does not give enough information for arguing one side or the other6.
About the Chatti we are better informed. This tribe elicits from Tacitus a fair degree of admiration. They are rather bright for Germans, and militarily better organized and disciplined than most. They rely on their infantry and carry on real. But the other tribal names do not match up, and Pliny's inclusion of the Goths Gutones as another tribe of the Vandals shows that be was not fully informed.
I would be quite happy to say that the Charini were probably the same thing as the Harli, but not the same people. It is more likely that every tribe bad one, and that, since they were in concept the same thing, they bad the same or similar names. In India there were oath brotherhoods of cultic warriors called Vrityas, and there were others called Vrafinas. From the information we have, they seem to be exactly the same sort of thing, but they were not the same group s.
Part Ill. And neither does the name, if we recall that her, etc, means "raiding party," not army as we usually mean it; thus we can conclude nothing about "professional soldiers.