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Traffic from your private network destined for the Internet must be manipulated for replies to be routable back to the machine that made the request. To do this, the kernel must modify the source IP address of each packet so that replies will be routed back to it, rather than to the private IP address that made the request, which is impossible over the Internet. Linux uses Connection Tracking conntrack to keep track of which connections belong to which machines and reroute each return packet accordingly.

Traffic leaving your private network is thus "masqueraded" as having originated from your Ubuntu gateway machine.

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This process is referred to in Microsoft documentation as Internet Connection Sharing. IP Masquerading can be achieved using custom ufw rules. These files are a great place to add legacy iptables rules used without ufw , and rules that are more network gateway or bridge related. The rules are split into two different files, rules that should be executed before ufw command line rules, and rules that are executed after ufw command line rules. First, packet forwarding needs to be enabled in ufw.

The default rules only configure the filter table, and to enable masquerading the nat table will need to be configured. Add the following to the top of the file just after the header comments:.

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The comments are not strictly necessary, but it is considered good practice to document your configuration. In these examples only the nat and filter tables are shown, but you can also add rules for the raw and mangle tables. In the above example replace eth0 , eth1 , and Finally, disable and re-enable ufw to apply the changes:. IP Masquerading should now be enabled. It is recommended that these additional rules be added to the ufw-before-forward chain.

Next, execute the sysctl command to enable the new settings in the configuration file:. IP Masquerading can now be accomplished with a single iptables rule, which may differ slightly based on your network configuration:. The above command assumes that your private address space is The syntax is broken down as follows:. The above commands will allow all connections from your local network to the Internet and all traffic related to those connections to return to the machine that initiated them. For example add the first command with no filtering:. Firewall logs are essential for recognizing attacks, troubleshooting your firewall rules, and noticing unusual activity on your network.

If you are using ufw , you can turn on logging by entering the following in a terminal:. To turn logging off in ufw , simply replace on with off in the above command. If using iptables instead of ufw , enter:. A request on port 80 from the local machine, then, would generate a log in dmesg that looks like this single line split into 3 to fit this document :. The ulogd daemon is a userspace server that listens for logging instructions from the kernel specifically for firewalls, and can log to any file you like, or even to a PostgreSQL or MySQL database.

Making sense of your firewall logs can be simplified by using a log analyzing tool such as logwatch , fwanalog , fwlogwatch , or lire. There are many tools available to help you construct a complete firewall without intimate knowledge of iptables. A command-line tool with plain-text configuration files:. Shorewall is a very powerful solution to help you configure an advanced firewall for any network.

The Ubuntu Firewall wiki page contains information on the development of ufw. Also, the ufw manual page contains some very useful information: man ufw. The material in this document is available under a free license, see Legal for details.

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